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PostSubject: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 11:56 am

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. By extension, the term fishing is applied to pursuing other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish, squid, octopus, turtles, frogs, and some edible marine invertebrates. The term fishing is not usually applied to pursuing aquatic mammals such as whales, where the term "whaling" is more appropriate, or to commercial fish farming.
Fishing is an ancient and worldwide practice with various techniques
and traditions and it has been transformed by modern technological
developments. In addition to providing food through harvesting fish, modern fishing is both a recreational and professional sport.

Origins


Fishing is a very ancient practice that dates back at least to the Mesolithic period which began about 10,000 years ago.[1] Archaeological features such as shell middens,[2] discarded fish bones and cave paintings
show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in
significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a
hunter-gather lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move.
However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements
(though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The Neolithic
culture and technology spread worldwide between 4,000 and 8,000 years
ago. With the new technologies of farming and pottery came basic forms
of all the main fishing methods that are still used today.

[edit] Ancient representations

The World of Fishing 200px-Egyptian_fishery3The World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Egyptians bringing in fish, and splitting for salting.





The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population.[3] The Egyptians
invented various implements and methods for fishing and these are
clearly illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents.
Simple reed boats served for fishing. Woven nets, weir baskets made
from willow branches, harpoons and hook and line (the hooks having a
length of between eight millimetres and eighteen centimetres) were all
being used. By the 12th dynasty, metal hooks with barbs were being used. As is fairly common today, the fish were clubbed to death after capture. Nile perch, catfish and eels were among the most important fish. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.The World of Fishing 180px-Poseidon_sculpture_Copenhagen_2005The World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Poseidon/Neptune sculpture in Copenhagen Port.





Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. There is a wine cup,
dating from 510�500 BC, that shows a boy crouched on a rock with a
fishing-rod in his right hand and a basket in his left. In the water
below, a rounded object of the same material with an opening on the
top. This has been identified as a fish-cage used for keeping live
fish, or as a fish-trap. It is clearly not a net. This object is
currently in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[4]
Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets. Various species such as conger, lobster, sea urchin, octopus and cuttlefish are illustrated.[5] In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a casting-net. He would fight against the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front.
The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident.

[edit] Ancient literature


There are numerous references to fishing in ancient literature; in
most cases, however, the descriptions of nets and fishing-gear do not
go into detail, and the equipment is described in general terms. An
early example from the Bible in Job 41:7: Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?.[6]The World of Fishing 250px-36-pesca%2CTaccuino_Sanitatis%2C_Casanatense_4182.The World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Fishing , tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)





The Greek historian Polybius (ca 203 BC-120 BC), in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head.[7]
Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika,
composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have
survived intact to the modern day. Oppian describes various means of
fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open
by a hoop, spears and tridents, and various traps "which work while
their masters sleep". Oppian's description of fishing with a
"motionless" net is also very interesting:
The fishers set up very light nets of buoyant flax and wheel in
a circle round about while they violently strike the surface of the sea
with their oars and make a din with sweeping blow of poles. At the
flashing of the swift oars and the noise the fish bound in terror and
rush into the bosom of the net which stands at rest, thinking it to be
a shelter: foolish fishes which, frightened by a noise, enter the gates
of doom. Then the fishers on either side hasten with the ropes to draw
the net ashore.

From ancient representations and literature it is clear that fishing
boats were typically small, lacking a mast or sail, and were only used
close to the shore.
In traditional Chinese history, history begins with three
semi-mystical and legendary individuals who taught the Chinese the arts
of civilization around 2800�2600 BC: of these Fu Hsi was reputed to be the inventor of writing, hunting, trapping, and fishing.

[edit] Fishing techniques



[edit] Hand fishing


It is possible to fish with minimal equipment by using only the hands. In the British Isles, the practice of catching trout by hand is known as trout tickling; it is an art mentioned several times in the plays of Shakespeare.
Trout binning is a method of fishing, possibly fictional, performed with a sledgehammer.[8]
Divers can catch lobsters by hand.
Pearl diving is the practice of hunting for oysters by free-diving to depths of up to 30 m.
Hand-line fishing is a technique requiring a fishing line with a weight and one or more lure-like hooks.
Stump fishing
or noodling is a technique in which the fisher holds the bait in his or
her hand and waits for a large catfish to attempt to eat it; when the
fish bites, the fisher pulls his or her arm, along with the fish, from
the water. It is practiced, mostly illegally, in the Southern and
Midwestern U.S.

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Fishing techniques



[edit] Hand fishing


It is possible to fish with minimal equipment by using only the hands. In the British Isles, the practice of catching trout by hand is known as trout tickling; it is an art mentioned several times in the plays of Shakespeare.
Trout binning is a method of fishing, possibly fictional, performed with a sledgehammer.[8]
Divers can catch lobsters by hand.
Pearl diving is the practice of hunting for oysters by free-diving to depths of up to 30 m.
Hand-line fishing is a technique requiring a fishing line with a weight and one or more lure-like hooks.
Stump fishing
or noodling is a technique in which the fisher holds the bait in his or
her hand and waits for a large catfish to attempt to eat it; when the
fish bites, the fisher pulls his or her arm, along with the fish, from
the water. It is practiced, mostly illegally, in the Southern and
Midwestern U.S.

[edit] Spear and bow fishing

The World of Fishing 180px-Fishing_arrow_GuyanaThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Head of an arrow used for fishing, from Guyana.





Main article: Spear fishing


Spear fishing is an ancient method of fishing and may be conducted with an ordinary spear or a specialised variant such as an eel spear[9][10] or the trident. A small trident type spear with a long handle is used in the American South and Midwest for "gigging" bullfrogs with a bright light at night, or for gigging carp and other fish in the shallows.
Traditional spear fishing is restricted to shallow waters, but the development of the speargun
has made the method much more efficient. With practice, divers are able
to hold their breath for up to four minutes and sometimes longer; of
course, a diver with underwater breathing equipment can dive for much longer periods.
Bow fishers use a bow and arrow to kill fish in shallow water from above.

[edit] Fishing nets

The World of Fishing 180px-Coracles_River_TeifiThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Coracles on the River Teifi, Wales 1972.





Main article: Fishing net


All fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used in certain areas.

[edit] Dredging


There are types of dredges used for collecting scallops or oysters
from the seabed. They tend to have the form of a scoop made of chain
mesh called dredges and they are towed by a fishing boat. Scallop
dredging is very destructive to the seabed, because the marine life is
unable to survive the weight of the dredge. This is extremely
detrimental to coral bed since they take centuries to rebuild
themselves. Dredging could be compared to unmonitored forest clearing,
where it can wipe out an ecosystem. Nowadays, this method of fishing is
often replaced by mariculture or by scuba diving to collect the
scallops.

[edit] Fishing lines


Main article: Fishing line


Fishing line is any cord made for fishing. Important
parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight
(thicker, sturdier lines are more visible to fish). Factors that may
determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment
include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, castability, limpness, stretch, abrasion resistance, and visibility.

[edit] Kite fishing


Kite fishing is presumed to have been first invented in China. It was, and is, also used by the people of New Guinea and other Pacific Islands - either by cultural diffusion from China or independent invention.
Kites can provide the boatless fishermen access to waters that would
otherwise be available only to boats. Similarly, for boat owners, kites
provide a way to fish in areas where it is not safe to navigate such as
shallows or coral reefs where fish may be plentiful. Kites can also be
used for trolling a lure through the water.
Suitable kites may be of very simple construction. Those of Tobi Island
are a large leaf stiffened by the ribs of the fronds of the coconut
palm. The fishing line may be made from coconut fibre and the lure made
from spiders webs.[11]
Modern kitefishing is popular in New Zealand, where large delta kites of synthetic materials are used to fish from beaches[12], taking a line and hooks far out past the breakers. Kite fishing is also emerging in Melbourne
where sled kites are becoming popular, both off beaches and off boats
and in freshwater areas. The disabled community are increasingly using
the kites for fishing as they allow mobility impaired people to cast
the bait further out than they would otherwise be able to.

[edit] Ice fishing


Main article: Ice fishing


Ice fishing
is the practice of catching fish with lines and hooks through an
opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. It is practised by hunter-gatherers such as the Inuit and by anglers in other cold or continental climates.

[edit] Fish traps / Trap Nets


Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been
independently invented many times. There are essentially two types of
trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or
tidal area and pot-traps that are baited to attract prey and
periodically lifted.
Indigenous Australians were, prior to European colonisation, most populous in Australia's better-watered areas such as the Murray-Darling
river system of the south-east. Here, where water levels fluctuate
seasonally, indigenous people constructed ingenious stone fish traps.[13]
Unfortunately, most have been completely or partially destroyed. The
largest and best known were the Brewarrina fish traps on the Barwon
River at Brewarrina in New South Wales, which fortunately are at least partly preserved.[14]
The Brewarinna fish traps caught huge numbers of migratory native fish
as the Barwon River rose in flood and then fell. In southern Victoria, indigenous people created an elaborate systems of canals, some more than 2 km long. The purpose of these canals was the encouragement and catching of eels,
a fish of short coastal rivers (as opposed to rivers of the
Murray-Darling system). The eels were caught by a variety of traps
including stone walls constructed across canals with a net placed
across an opening in the wall. Traps at different levels in the marsh
came into operation as the water level rose and fell. Somewhat similar
stone wall traps were constructed by native American Pit River people in north-eastern California.[15]The World of Fishing 180px-Wagenya_RapidsThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Fishing method of Wagenya people in Congo.





A technique called dam fishing is used by the Baka
pygmies. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in
a drop in the water levels downstream -- allowing fish to be easily
collected.[16]
In medieval Europe, large fishing weir
structures were constructed from wood posts and wattle fences. 'V'
shaped structures in rivers could be as long as 60 m and worked by
directing fish towards fish traps or nets. Such fish traps were
evidently controversial in medieval England. The Magna Carta includes a clause requiring that they be removed:
All fish-weirs shall be removed from the Thames, the Medway, and throughout the whole of England, except on the sea coast.[17]
Basket weir fish traps were widely used in ancient times. They are
shown in medieval illustrations and surviving examples have been found.
Basket weirs are about 2 m long and comprise two wicker cones, one
inside the other -- easy to get into and hard to get out.[18]
The Wagenya people, in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
build a huge system of wooden tripods across the river. These tripods
are anchored on the holes naturally carved in the rock by the water
current. To these tripods are anchored large baskets, which are lowered
in the rapids to "sieve" the waters for fish. It is a very selective
fishing, as these baskets are quite big and only large size fish are
trapped. Twice a day the adults Wagenya people pull out these baskets
to check whether there are any fish caught; in which case somebody will
dive into the river to fetch it.
In the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America, Fishermen
submerse a long, visible mesh wall running perpendicular to the
shoreline that guides fish (who instinctively swim towards deeper water
when coming upon a large obstacle) into a maze that ends in a large
mesh "pot", that can be raised up to the boat to haul the fish in. This
method of fishing results in fish staying alive until the time they are
hauled into the boat, versus being entangled and killed in a gill net.
This method also allows for sportfish and other protected species to be
released without harm.

[edit] Lobster and crab pots

The World of Fishing 180px-Catching_lobsterThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Catching lobster.





Pot traps are typically used to catch crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish. Pot traps such as the lobster trap
may be constructed in various shapes, each is a box designed with a
convoluted entrance that makes entry much easier than exit. The pots
are baited and lowered into the water and checked frequently. Similar
traps are used in many areas to capture bait fish.
Historically lobster pots were constructed with wood. Today most
traps are made from checkered wire and mesh. It is common for the trap
to be weighted down with bricks. A bait bag is hung in the middle of
the trap. In theory the lobster walks up the mesh and then falls into
the wire trap. Bait varies from captain to captain but it is common to
use herring. In commercial lobstering five to ten of these traps will
be connected with line. A buoy marks each end of the string of pots.
Two buoys are important to make retrieval easier and so captains don't
set their traps over each other. Each buoy is painted differently so
the various captains can identify their traps.

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Modern fishing



[edit] Recreational fishing

The World of Fishing 180px-Fishing_off_pierThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

Angling.





Main article: Sport fishing


Recreational fishing and the closely related (nearly synonymous) sport fishing
describe fishing for pleasure or competition. Recreational fishing has
conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way
in which fish may be caught, The International Game Fishing Association
(IGFA)
makes and oversees a set of voluntary obligations. Typically, these
prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the
mouth. Enforceable regulations are put in place by Governments to
ensure sustainable practice amongst anglers. For example in the
Republic of Ireland, the Central Fisheries Board oversees the
implementation of all angling regulations, which include controls on
angling lures, baits and number of hooks permissible, as well as
licensing regimes and other conservation based restrictions.[23]
The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits. Other devices, commonly referred to as terminal tackle,
are also used to affect or compliment the presentation of the bait to
the targeted fish. Some examples of terminal tackle include weights,
floats, and swivels. Lures
are frequently used in place of bait. Most types of fishing tackle are
made in a professional manufacturing facility while others are hand
made by hobbyists who find greater satisfaction in catching fish with
tackle made by themselves. Some examples of hand made tackle include
plastics from Fishing worm molds and flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is known as angling.
In addition to capturing fish for food recreational anglers also
enjoy keeping a log of fish caught and submitting trophy sized fish to
independent record keeping bodies. In the Republic of Ireland the Irish
Specimen Fish Committee verify and publicize the capture of specimen
(i.e. trophy) fish caught on rod and line by anglers in Ireland, both
in freshwater and at sea. The Committee also ratifies Irish record rod
caught fish. It also uses a set of 'fair play' regulations to ensure
fish are caught in accordance with accepted angling norms.[24]
One method of growing popularity is kayak fishing.
Kayak fisherman fish from sea kayaks in an attempt to level the playing
field with fish and to further challenge their abilities. Kayaks are
extremely stealthy and can allow anglers to reach areas unfishable from
land or by conventional boat.
In angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish all be returned to the water (catch and release).
The practice, however, is viewed by some with disapproval as they
consider it unethical to inflict pain on a fish for fun or sport and
not for reasons of capturing food. Anglers deny this charge, pointing
out that fish commonly feed on hard and spiky prey items, and as such
can be expected to have tough mouths, and also that some fish will
re-take a lure they have just been hooked on, a behavior that is
unlikely if being hooked were painful. There is also some research that
shows certain types of fish such as catfish, do not have nerves around their mouth, most likely due to the fact that they eat animals such as crawfish that can pinch.
In a real sense, the suitability of catch and release is an ethical
consideration and, as such, a science-based conclusion on the issue is
unavailable. Scientific studies show a wide range of survival,
depending on species, environmental conditions, fish density and
research design (methodology). The difficulty of doing such experiments
is closely linked to the fact that negative effects of being exposed to
fishing gears develop over a long time. Keeping fish trapped over a
long period of time creates a lot of noise which makes it hard to
single out the effect of the catch from the effect of the chosen
methodology. Nevertheless, several studies have now returned very high
survival rates (95%+) for species caught on fly and lures, which
generally tend to hook fish in the mouth and thus aid catch and release
fishing.
Proponents of catch and release also contend that the practice is
increasingly necessary in order to conserve fish stocks in the face of
burgeoning human populations, mounting fishing pressure and worsening
habitat degradation. Opponents would prefer to ban or to severely
restrict angling, a suggestion most anglers find unpalatable.
Recreational fishermen can have profound deleterious effects on fish
stocks in commercial lakes, this is due to anglers with poor knowledge
of how to protect the fish from damage or stress once out of the water.
The fish which suffer most are those of large, slow growing species
such as carp. The only way for growing numbers of recreational
fishermen to continue fishing is to reduce their impact on fish
populations or to increase the fish populations (e.g. by restocking
(although there are serious problems with restocking), habitat
restoration, environmental flows). Catch and release,
in combination with techniques such as strong tackle (to get fish in
quickly, for release in good condition) and careful handling of fish
help improve the chances of survival. Quick release lead systems such
as the Korda quick release system or the E.S.P. variety can be useful
tools for catch and release fishermen.
Barbless hooks may reduce damage to minimal levels, this is not
always the case when fishing for bigger species such as carp where a
barbless hook often moves around in the mouth whilst the fish is being
played causing damage to the carp's mouth, barbless hooks can reduce
de-hooking time and greatly aid in catch and release. Many keen catch
and release anglers use barbless hooks. Barbless hooks can be
purchased, or created by crushing the barbs on a normal hook flat with
a pair of needle-nosed pliers. It is popularly believed barbless hooks
lead to more lost fish, but ensuring lures are equipped with split
rings and keeping the line tight while fighting fish will reduce fish
losses to levels similar to those of barbed hooks. Hooks known as
"circle hooks" are also available to facilitate catch and release. The
design of a circle hook is intended to cause less injury to the fish,
allowing the fisherman to catch and release the fish without causing
injury.
A recent phenomenon of recreational fishing are fishing competitions
(tournaments) where fishermen compete for prizes based on the total
weight of a given species of fish caught within a predetermined time.
This sport evolved from local fishing contests into large competitive
circuits, especially in North America.
Competitors are most often professional fishermen who are supported by
commercial endorsements. Other competitions is purely on length with
mandatory catch and release, either longest fish or total length is
documented with camera and a mandatory sticker, is more fair since it's
hard to weigh a living fish accurately in a boat.
Big-game fishing describes fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin.
Noodling and Trout tickling may be pursued as a recreation.
Laws made to control recreational fishing frequently also attempt to control the harvest of other aquatic species, such as frogs and turtles

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Sport fishing


Main article: Sport fishing


Sport fishing (sometimes game fishing) describes
recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of
finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial
value of the fish's flesh. The distinction is not completely rigid - in
many cases, sport fishers will also eat their catch. The philosophies
and tactics used for sport fishing, however, are usually sufficiently
different from "food fishing" to make the distinction clear enough.
The most common fish sought after are marlin, tuna, sailfish, shark and mackerel along with other species of fish.
Sport fishing methods vary according to the area being fished, the
species being targeted, the personal strategies of the angler, and the
resources available, ranging from the aristocratic art of fly fishing,
ostensibly invented in Great Britain, to the high-tech methods used to
chase marlin and tuna. In virtually every case, however, the fishing is
done with hook, line, rod and reel rather than with nets or other aids.
In the past, sport fishers, even if they did not eat their catch,
almost always killed them to bring them to shore to be weighed or for
preservation as trophies. Fishermans desire to improve the fishery have
resulted in many sportfisherman releasing their catch alive, sometimes
after fitting them with identifying tags and recording their details so
as to aid fisheries research (known as tag and release).
Sport fishing competitions give competitors (individuals if the
fishing occurs from land, usually teams where conducted from boats) a
specified time and area from which they are to catch fish. Scores are
awarded for each fish caught, the points depending on the fish's weight
and species, and then, sometimes, divided by the strength of the
fishing line used (so catching fish on thinner, weaker line scores
additional points). In tag and release competitions, a flat score per
fish, divided by the line strength, is awarded for each species caught.

[edit] Commercial fishing

The World of Fishing 180px-Fishing_TrawlerThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

A trawler leaving the port of Ullapool, north-west Scotland.




The World of Fishing 180px-Ilwaco_PlantThe World of Fishing Magnify-clip

A fish processing plant in Ilwaco, Washington.





Main article: Fishing industry


Commercial fishing provides a large quantity of food to many
countries around the world, but those who practice it as an industry
must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions.
Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and sea-going processing factories. Many new restrictions are often integrated with varieties of fishing allocation schemes (such as individual fishing quotas), and international treaties that have sought to limit the fishing effort and, sometimes, capture efficiency.
Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being
fished for, and the technology available to the fishermen. A commercial
fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day.
Commercial fishing gears today are surrounding nets (e.g. purse seine), seine nets (e.g. beach seine), trawls (e.g. bottom trawl), dredges, hooks and lines (e.g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps.
In addition to the above, commercial fishing can also be thought of
as encompassing "pay to fish" enterprises, which provide anglers with
controlled access to stocked lakes, ponds or canals. These provide
fishing opportunities outside of the permitted seasons and quotas
applied to public waters. In the United Kingdom, commercial fisheries
of this sort charge access fees, with prices ranging from £2 to £25 per
day. In North America, establishments usually charge for the fish
caught, by length or by weight, rather than for access to the site
although some establishments charge both types of fees. Prices for fish
caught in North American "pay to fish" waters are generally in the
range of $0.10 to $0.20 per cm or from $5.00 to $10.00 per kg.

[edit] Preservation




The World of Fishing 120px-Fish_Packed_in_Ice

Fish packed in ice.







The World of Fishing 120px-Canned_fish_2

Canned fish.







The World of Fishing 120px-Hjell-oversikt.arj

A fish-drying rack. Hovden in Norway.







The World of Fishing 120px-Klippfiskproduksjon

Salting of fish in factory.









Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying, salting, pickling and smoking. All of these techniques are still used today but the more modern techniques of freezing and canning have taken on a large importance.
Fish curing includes methods of curing fish by drying, salting, smoking, and pickling, or by combinations
of these processes have been employed since ancient times. On sailing
vessels fish were usually salted down immediately to prevent spoilage;
the swifter boats of today commonly bring in unsalted fish. Modern freezing and canning methods have largely supplanted older methods of preservation. Fish to be cured are usually first cleaned, scaled, and eviscerated. Fish are salted by packing them between layers of salt or by immersion in brine. The fish most extensively salted are cod, herring, mackerel, and haddock. Smoking preserves fish by drying, by deposition
of creosote ingredients, and, when the fish are near the source of
heat, by heat penetration. Herring and haddock (finnan haddie) are
commonly smoked. Kippers are split herring, and bloaters are whole herring, salted and smoked. Sardines, pilchards], and anchovies are small fish of the herring family, often salted and smoked and then preserved in oil. Fish are dried under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and air velocity. Since the dried product is relatively unappetizing and rehydrating slow, other preservation methods are common.
See:

In the past, fishing vessels were restricted in range by the simple
consideration that the catch must be returned to port before it spoils
and becomes worthless. The development of refrigeration
and freezing technologies transformed the commercial fishing industry:
fishing vessels could be larger, spending more time away from port and
therefore accessing fish stocks at a much greater distance.
Refrigeration and freezing also allow the catch to be distributed to
markets further inland, reaching customers who previously would have
had access only to dried or salted sea fish.
Canning, developed during the 19th century has also had a
significant impact on fishing by allowing seasonal catches of fish that
are possibly far from large centres of population to be exploited. For
example: sardines.

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The World of Fishing Tit_linea










Fishing
is the activity of hunting for fish. It is an ancient and worldwide
practice that dates back about 10,000 years with various techniques and
traditions and it has been transformed by modern technological
developments.

Fishing
continues to be a favorite pastime in the United States, in 2001, 16%
of the U.S. population 16 years old and older (34 million anglers)
spent an average of 16 days fishing. Freshwater fishing was the most
popular type of fishing with over 28 million anglers devoting nearly
467 million angler-days to the sport.
The World of Fishing PezPractice Good Stewardship of our Waterways:



You
can help to take care of our lakes, rivers, and other waterways so that
others may enjoy these areas for years to come by practicing some of
the following actions:



  • Don't
    Litter... take along a trash bag or other receptacle for collecting
    your trash so that you can deposit it in the proper trash receptacle.
    Use proper dumping stations instead of tossing refuse into the water.
  • Make
    sure that you use the correct type of bait and fishing gear permitted
    in that area. There may also be limits on the number, size, and kind of
    fish that you can keep. Check with your destination ahead of time to
    see what the local regulations allow. If you use a boat or watercraft
    when fishing, check to see what kinds of watercraft are allowed at the
    body of water where you are going to fish.
  • Pay
    attention to local procedures and cautions for cleaning your watercraft
    after you leave the water so that you don't encourage the spread of
    npn-native species, such as the Zebra Mussel, to the next body of water
    you may visit with your boat.
  • Don't
    fish in areas where it is not permitted. These areas have been declared
    "off limits" to fishing to protect wildlife, vegetation, or for your
    safety.

The World of Fishing PezSafety While Fishing:




  • If using a boat to fish, wear your life jacket and make sure that your passengers wear theirs, too !
  • Use caution when baiting and removing hooks
  • Do not fish on unauthorized waterways
  • If operating a houseboat, be careful of carbon monoxide build-up around the boat
  • Obey the posted speedlimits and wake warnings if using a watercraft when fishing
  • Bring along extra safety items such as water, flashlights, maps, and a cellphone or radio








The World of Fishing Pie_tabla_2_izq

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:04 pm

The World of Fishing Thumb1A Fishing Guide Made Easy


from:


Fishing is considered a favorite past time among Americans. A
majority of Americans have had the ultimate fishing experience. Fishing
is the activity of catching species that live and breathe underwater.



Today more advanced fishing techniques were developed to make the
activity more exciting and challenging. Before 2005, all fishermen had
to do was hit a macro to catch a fish. Today there is a more developed
fishing system; it involves fighting a fish to reel it in.



A simple fishing guide would make understanding fishing easier. There
are five steps to follow for beginners. Start out by preparing your rod
and reel. The reel has to have a line then press the button of your
spin-cast reel. Make sure that enough line is pulled to thread it
through all of the guides of the rod.


In the second step of the fishing guide it is important to attach
a hook. One thing about hooks is that they come in different shapes and
sizes. An acceptable size to use is #6 or #8. A clinch should be used
to tie the hook to the line.



The third step of the fishing guide involves attaching a bobber by
threading the line to the top and bottom hooks. The purpose is to
attach the bobber so the fish hook hangs just above the structure.



Attaching the bait is the next step. Attach the bait to the hook using
either worm rig method, worm rig for bait stealers method or doughball
method.



The final step in the fishing process is to cast and retrieve. First
cast the bait, then turn the reel crank forward until it clicks to
prevent more line from coming out. You know you are catching a fish
when the bobber moves or when you feel a tug on the line. Make sure the
hook is in the fishís mouth. If more detailed instructions are needed
there are numerous fishing guides on the web or in books.



One guideline is very important before going fishing. Check the fishing
regulations to see if the fish you catch according to size is legal to
keep. If it is a fish that is not legal to keep, it must be released
and handled as little as possible.



If this is a fish that can be kept a good way to keep it alive is to
place it in a cooler until it is ready to be cleaned. So if your
purpose is fish as hobby and use the catch and release method, fishing
regulations do not need to be considered. Fishing is mostly done for
recreational purposes, such as fishing tournaments or hobby but some
actually catch fish that they plan to cook with. Whatever the reason
your reason for fishing is it blends well with the American way of
life. Remember to take along your fishing guide!

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:07 pm

Fishing Article

The World of Fishing Thumb1A Fishing Rod For The Optimal Fishing Experience


from:


A fishing rod is one of the most important tools used to catch
fish. Catching fish is deemed as relaxing, invigorating and good eating
by many. Many fishermen are very competitive and are looking to catch a
particular type of fish. Having the right tool can make your fishing
trip much more successful. The size of the fishing rod can greatly
depend on the size of fish that you want to catch. Before purchasing a
fishing rod you will want to determine the type of fishing that you
will be doing. The size of the fish, method of fishing and water
conditions all make a huge difference. Knowing ahead of time the type
of fish that will be biting can assist you in the decision of
purchasing a fishing rod.



Using a fly fishing rod is best suited for catching trout or salmon. In
order to catch them you will need a flexible fishing rod. Having the
correct fishing rod, line, nets and other tools can ensure that you
bring in the fish that you desire. Remember that with salmon fishing
you will be holding the rod so make sure that you have a comfortable
grip. Many salmon rods are a bit more expensive, but well worth the
price when you bring in that prized salmon.

.

If winter fishing is your desire there are ice fishing rods that can be
used in frozen lake conditions. These rods allow you to fish from holes
in the frozen water. The ice fishing rod is generally of good quality
and a bit more durable than other types of rods. The length of the ice
rod can vary between 24 and 36 inches in length. You may need to
experiment a bit to determine the best fit for you. Everyone is
different so it is impossible to say that one-rod or the other is right
for everyone.



When you want to do coarse fishing, a carbon fiber rod is the method
normally used to catch any member of cyprinid family. That is why it's
good for you to know what type of fish that will be biting before
hitting the water. Other types of rods are spin casting rods, spinning
rod, ultra light rods, and surf rods. These are fishing rods designed
for specific types of fishing and much of the decision depends on what
you are most comfortable with. Another determining factor is what kind
of fish that you are looking to catch. Before purchasing a fishing rod
make sure to ask yourself the following questions. What type of rod
should I use? What type of fish will I be fishing for? How much do I
want to spend? These are also questions that you can discuss with a
fishing pro or sales person before making your final decision.

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:07 pm

Fishing Article

The World of Fishing Thumb1Deep Sea Fishing The Wondrous Adventure


from:


Deep-sea fishing is a wonderful way to spend the days of your
vacation. All around the globe there are wide-open seas that house the
most beautiful creatures in the world. For some relaxation is the
excitement of water sports and for others it is a adrenal pumping scare
of bringing that mammoth of a Marlin in. What ever you enjoy is what
you will find when deep-sea fishing. There are many areas all over the
world where a vacationer can find the joys of deep-sea fishing. From
the beaches of Cancun to the oceanfront of Hawaii there is some place
for everyone. Learning to fish can be fun and certainly an educational
venture. Hiring a guide or setting out on a charter expedition can lead
to one of the most memorable experiences ever.



Deep-sea fishing is an adventure that many do at least a couple of
times per year. That is the best vacation to many fishermen! The
anticipation of reeling in that prized fish is one of the most
adrenaline pumping activities that you will experience. The water is a
serene picture perfect place, but knowing that there is something
underlying in the depths can certainly get your heart racing. Deep-sea
fishing is almost like a game of hide and seek. They are hiding and you
are certainly trying to lure them out of their best hiding spot!



Deep-sea fishing can be used as an adventurous sport or a relaxing day
on the water. Many vacationers enjoy having something to take back home
to remind them of their trip years down the road. What better way then
taking back a trophy Marlin or sailfish to hang on the wall. Catch a
few as souvenirs and the rest you can eat. Deep-sea fishing can provide
some of the best meals you will ever have. The different varieties of
fish provide a great and tasty experience. That is the reason the
fishing industry is a multi-million dollar profit every year.



Some of the most popular fish that are targeted when deep-sea fishing
are the Marlin, Sharks, Sailfish, Tuna and many more that anglers are
trying for. In some cases a fisherman may end up with something other
than what he was looking for. Many times some of the other less
attractive sea creatures get hooked rather than that prized Tuna! The
fish that are found in the ocean are absolutely amazing. They are
colorful and vary in shape and size. Just being in the same water as
they are is a pleasure. Deep-sea fishing is an experience that you will
never forget!

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:08 pm

Fishing Article

The World of Fishing Thumb1Finding The Right Fishing Gear


from:


As with most sports or activities, the right gear is always
needed. An activity like fishing requires certain gear to get the job
done successfully. Depending on what kind of fishing and how advanced
the fisherman is would determine the appropriate gear. In a simple
fishing situation such as freshwater fishing, there is a simple list of
equipment that is required.



The basic fishing gear is a pole, a rod, a line, a sinker, and a
bobber, a hook and some bait. Almost any kind of poles can be used, for
a specific kind of fishing it would be best to consult with a fishing
gear retail store. For rods any type will work. The basic rod is 6 feet
long and has medium weight, it is considered an all-purpose rod.

A rod is considered to be a long, straight, flexible pole that an
angler used to cast bait. These rods are usually made of bamboo,
fiberglass or graphite. Fiberglass rods are the most popular with
beginners. They are relatively inexpensive, not easily broken and donít
require much maintenance. Next is the fishing line, the material is
nylon. There is a wide range of fishing lines. A typical line will hold
a fish up to four pounds without breaking. Choosing the appropriate
fishing line will depend on your fishing situation. What type of fish
are you looking to catch? What is the condition of the water?



The sinkers are weights that are used to cast lures and drop the bait
in the bottom of the water where the fish swim the most. Sinkers are
used together with bobbers hold the line at a given point. Two
situations are important; the depth of the water and the speed of the
current determine how much weight is needed to hold the bait in front
of the hungry fish. Again a bobber and a sinker work like a team, a
sinker takes the bait to the desired depth of water, while the bobber
holds it there. The purpose is to allow the fisherman to adjust the
depth of the water to anywhere he wants or needs it to be. Finally,
bobbers come in different sizes to accommodate the bait. The most
important piece of fishing gear is the hook it is shaped like the
letter J. They come many sizes and almost any type of will work. The
hook is what is used to put on the bait. The main attraction to the
fish is the bait. The bait is the final piece of fishing gear needed to
successfully catch fish. Something fish would love to eat. The best
bait for fish is a nightcrawlers or worms including earthworms.
Earthworms are the most commonly used forms of bait.



Your basic fishing gear is important to have a successful fishing
experience. Without the above items, you may or may not catch the fish
you want.

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:09 pm

Fishing Article

The World of Fishing Thumb1Fly Fishing, A Unique Experience


from:


Fly-fishing is a form fishing that uses a different method of
catching the species that live and breathe under water. The method is
referred to as angling. This method is used to target mostly trout and
salmon. Recently the target list has extended to fish like bass, pike
and carp. Historically fly fishing an ancient method of catching fish
that originated in Scotland and Northern Europe.



There are many and various types of flies being used in fly-fishing. In
modern fishing methods there are various types of fish being used to
catch the designated target. The following is a list of types of fish;
dry flies and emergers (for example midges or stoneflies), nymphs (for
example mayflies or eggs and worms), streamers wet flies (for example
buggers and leeches), saltwater flies (for examples sailfish and
marlin), bass and panfish flies (for example crawfish and eels), salmon
and steelhead flies (for example Atlantic salmon flies).



Certain gear is needed when fly-fishing. The first item on the list is
fly rods, in which size and usage is important. It is important to
match the fly rod with the fly line according to weight. Matching the
weight of the two items is important to have positive casting results.
The size of the fly rods can be anywhere from #0, #1, #2 and are used
for the lightest trout and panfish rods up to powerful and heavy #16
rods for the largest saltwater game fish.



Another item needed for fly-fishing is a bamboo split cane. This allows
for a better performance in the freshwater trout fishing situations.
Synthetic fly rods are usually used and offer a greater versatility,
stiffness, power and performance than a bamboo split cane. The
advantages are that they are less expensive and require less
maintenance. Finally, fly reels are manually operated. Although in
recent years, more advanced models have been developed to deal bigger
fish and more demanding situations. These models increase the drag and
retrieval performance.



Fly-fishing is an ancient method of catching fish. It is more demanding
because you are limited to the types of fish you can catch. You need
the appropriate gear to catch the trout or the salmon. Todayís modern
techniques used in fly-fishing have been developed to meet more
challenging situations, such as bigger weight of the fish. These modern
advancements prepare the fly fisherman to successfully meet his quota
by using the methodology appropriately.



There are many popular locations for fly-fishing mostly in the Northern
United States and Canada. Alaska is another popular place for the
activity. Some places in the United States are Utah, Idaho, Colorado,
Montana and California are just a few places.

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:09 pm

Fishing Article

The World of Fishing Thumb1Letís Go Trout Fishing


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Trout is a fish that belongs in the salmon family. Trout fish
can be found in cool streams and lakes. This type of fish is
distributed naturally throughout Northern America, Asia and Europe. The
White River is one of Arkansas best known trout havens. This is the
ideal habitat for trout due to the cold tailwaters of the White Riverís
Beaver Dam.



As a fish, trout are usually bony, but the flesh is considered very
tasty. Trout fishing can be done both recreationally and commercially.
If going trout fishing for recreational reasons you should expect a
good fight if caught with hook and line. They are strong and can give
you a good run for your money.



Trout are a popular fish and can be caught with a regular rod and reel.
Fly-fishing is a method that was developed and intended to catch trout.
There are many fishermen that spend their days catching trout for
commercial reasons. The trout can be sold to individuals as well as
grocers around the world. The fishing industry is about 16-million
dollar venture every year.



It is important to realize that when trout fishing youíre going into
trout territory. Check the area for fishing and their best hideouts.
Try out the trout fishing opportunities in Southern Minnesota, trout
are abundant. The scenery in Southern Minnesota is also wonderful.
Using the right gear is important to catch trout. First fill your reel
spook with backing. Use #10 or #14 size range for hooks. Clean the reel
so your line runs smoothly off the spool.



The best bait and tackle techniques when trout fishing are to use #10
or #14 shank hooks. The nightcrawlers are the best bait to use for
baiting trout. Trout love the night crawlers. Spinners and jigs also
work well for catching trout.



It is best to fish naturally using only certain gear but no bobber or
sinker should be used. Stay hidden and donít walk in the water. Make
accurate casts and lastly fish during afternoon hours in springtime and
early morning hours in summer time.



The fishing approach is important and you should plan a technique that
will prepare you for all situations. How you approach and how you
strike count for you or against you. How you play the fish, how you
land them and retrieve also should be planned ahead of time. It is
easiest to plan when you stand by the water and observe the situation,
asking yourself; are the trout rising to the surface where you can see
them or not? Concentrate on the trout you see and work on them. If you
start working to fast without a plan then you risk the chance of
driving the fish down to the bottom of the water. That can make for a
hungry group of campers.



Having a strategy when going trout fishing is important. You can catch
more fish that you see on the surface then the ones you scare off with
the wrong strategy.

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PostSubject: Re: The World of Fishing   The World of Fishing Icon_minitimeMon Jul 30, 2007 12:14 pm

The World of Fishing Lumbering_giants410


"Lumbering Giants"

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The World of Fishing Tight_quarters410


"Tight Quarters"

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